Division Annotation

Structure annotation representing some kind of division, typically used for chapters, sections, subsections (up to the set definition). Divisions may be nested at will, and may include almost all kinds of other structure elements.

Specification

Annotation Category:
 

Structure Annotation

Declaration:

<division-annotation set="..."> (note: set is optional for this annotation type; if you declare this annotation type to be setless you can not assign classes)

Version History:
 

Since the beginning

Element:

<div>

API Class:

Division (FoLiApy API Reference)

Required Attributes:
 
Optional Attributes:
 
  • xml:id – The ID of the element; this has to be a unique in the entire document or collection of documents (corpus). All identifiers in FoLiA are of the XML NCName datatype, which roughly means it is a unique string that has to start with a letter (not a number or symbol), may contain numbers, but may never contain colons or spaces. FoLiA does not define any naming convention for IDs.
  • set – The set of the element, ideally a URI linking to a set definition (see Set Definitions (Vocabulary)) or otherwise a uniquely identifying string. The set must be referred to also in the Annotation Declarations for this annotation type.
  • class – The class of the annotation, i.e. the annotation tag in the vocabulary defined by set.
  • processor – This refers to the ID of a processor in the Provenance Data. The processor in turn defines exactly who or what was the annotator of the annotation.
  • annotator – This is an older alternative to the processor attribute, without support for full provenance. The annotator attribute simply refers to the name o ID of the system or human annotator that made the annotation.
  • annotatortype – This is an older alternative to the processor attribute, without support for full provenance. It is used together with annotator and specific the type of the annotator, either manual for human annotators or auto for automated systems.
  • confidence – A floating point value between zero and one; expresses the confidence the annotator places in his annotation.
  • datetime – The date and time when this annotation was recorded, the format is YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss (note the literal T in the middle to separate date from time), as per the XSD Datetime data type.
  • n – A number in a sequence, corresponding to a number in the original document, for example chapter numbers, section numbers, list item numbers. This this not have to be an actual number but other sequence identifiers are also possible (think alphanumeric characters or roman numerals).
  • space – This attribute indicates whether spacing should be inserted after this element (it’s default value is always yes, so it does not need to be specified in that case), but if tokens or other structural elements are glued together then the value should be set to no. This allows for reconstruction of the detokenised original text.
  • src – Points to a file or full URL of a sound or video file. This attribute is inheritable.
  • begintime – A timestamp in HH:MM:SS.MMM format, indicating the begin time of the speech. If a sound clip is specified (src); the timestamp refers to a location in the soundclip.
  • endtime – A timestamp in HH:MM:SS.MMM format, indicating the end time of the speech. If a sound clip is specified (src); the timestamp refers to a location in the soundclip.
  • speaker – A string identifying the speaker. This attribute is inheritable. Multiple speakers are not allowed, simply do not specify a speaker on a certain level if you are unable to link the speech to a specific (single) speaker.
Accepted Data:

<alt> (Alternative Annotation), <altlayers> (Alternative Annotation), <comment> (Comment Annotation), <correction> (Correction Annotation), <desc> (Description Annotation), <div> (Division Annotation), <entry> (Entry Annotation), <event> (Event Annotation), <ex> (Example Annotation), <external> (External Annotation), <figure> (Figure Annotation), <gap> (Gap Annotation), <head> (Head Annotation), <br> (Linebreak), <list> (List Annotation), <metric> (Metric Annotation), <note> (Note Annotation), <p> (Paragraph Annotation), <part> (Part Annotation), <ph> (Phonetic Annotation/Content), <quote> (Quote Annotation), <ref> (Reference Annotation), <relation> (Relation Annotation), <s> (Sentence Annotation), <table> (Table Annotation), <t> (Text Annotation), <utt> (Utterance Annotation), <whitespace> (Whitespace), <w> (Token Annotation)

Valid Context:

<div> (Division Annotation), <event> (Event Annotation), <quote> (Quote Annotation)

Set Definitions:
 

You can use any of the following existing set definitions or simply create your own: * `https://raw.githubusercontent.com/proycon/folia/master/setdefinitions/divisions.foliaset.xml`_

Description & Examples

The structure element <div> is used to create divisions and subdivisions within a text.

Each division may be of a particular class pertaining to a set defining all possible classes, common classes for this annotation type would be chapter, section, subsection. A set, however, is not mandatory for most types of structure, so divisions may be set-less.

Divisions and other structural units are often numbered, think for example of chapters and sections. The number, as it was in the source document, can be encoded in the n attribute of the structure annotation element.

Divisions should never be used for marking paragraphs, sentences or other smaller structural entities for which FoLiA provides explicit structural element. Divisions only cover large structures.

The following example shows a FoLiA document with structured divisions with headers and paragraphs. It does not provide any further tokenisation.

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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<FoLiA xmlns="http://ilk.uvt.nl/folia" version="2.0" xml:id="example">
  <metadata>
      <annotations>
          <text-annotation>
			 <annotator processor="p1" />
          </text-annotation>
          <division-annotation set="https://raw.githubusercontent.com/LanguageMachines/uctodata/master/setdefinitions/divisions.foliaset.xml">
			 <annotator processor="p1" />
		  </division-annotation>
          <head-annotation>
			 <annotator processor="p1" />
		  </head-annotation>
          <paragraph-annotation>
			 <annotator processor="p1" />
		  </paragraph-annotation>
      </annotations>
      <provenance>
         <processor xml:id="p1" name="proycon" type="manual" />
      </provenance>
  </metadata>
  <text xml:id="example.text">
     <div xml:id="example.div.1" class="chapter" n="1">
         <head>
             <t>Chapter 1: In the beginning</t>
         </head>
         <div xml:id="example.div.1.1" class="section" n="1.1">
             <head>
                 <t>Section 1.1: The first steps</t>
             </head>
             <p xml:id="example.div.1.1.p.1">
                 <t>And so the first paragraph commences...</t>
             </p>
         </div>
     </div>
  </text>
</FoLiA>