Text Markup Annotation

The text content element (<t>) allows within its scope elements of a this category; these are Text Markup elements, they always contain textual content and apply a certain markup to certain spans of the text. One of it’s common uses is for styling (emphasis, underlines, etc.). Text markup elements may be nested.

Text markup elements may take sets and classes as most other elements, and any of the remaining common FoLiA attributes may be freely associated with any of the text-markup elements.

As text markup operates in the scope of the text content element, it is ideally suited for untokenised text. You should, however, limit your usage of text markup elements and only use them when other existing annotation elements do not suffice, or for extra verbosity in addition to existing elements.

Each text-markup element, save for one exception, starts with <t- and demands a declaration. The following subsections will discuss the various text markup elements available.

Text markup elements may carry an optional identifier. However, it may happen that textual content is repeated on multiple levels (see Text Annotation), which implies the textual markup elements may also be repeated, but this is not a strict requirement. However, if that is the case, only one of them may carry the customary xml:id attribute; duplicates may carry the id reference attribute (in the FoLiA namespace instead of the XML namespace!) which is interpreted as a reference. Such an element should be identical to the one it refers to, and explicitly include the value (if applicable) to facilitate the job of XML parsers. Certain elements may also use this id reference attribute to refer to structural elements that cover the very same data. A markup element may thus take either xml:id or id (a reference to another element); they may never occur together.

FoLiA defines the following types of text markup annotation:

  • Text Markup Annotation – The text content element (<t>) allows within its scope elements of a this category; these are Text Markup elements, they always contain textual content and apply a certain markup to certain spans of the text. One of it’s common uses is for styling (emphasis, underlines, etc.). Text markup elements may be nested.

    • Style Annotation<t-style> – This is a text markup annotation type for applying styling to text. The actual styling is defined by the user-defined set definition and can for example included classes such as italics, bold, underline
    • Hyphenation<t-hbr> – This is a text-markup annotation form that indicates where in the original text a linebreak was inserted and a word was hyphenised.